Silicon element properties

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Name: Silicon Symbol: Si
Group: Non-Metal, Carbon group Atomic weight: 28.0855
Density @ 293 K: 2.33 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 12.1 cm3/mol
Group: Non-Metal, Carbon group discovered: 1824


state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 1683.2 K boiling point: 3553 K
Heat of fusion: 50.550 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 384.220 kJ/mol


1st ionization energy: 786.4 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 1.9 2nd ionization energy: 1577 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 133.6 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 3231.5 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.71 J/gK heat atomization: 452 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,4 electron configuration: [Ne] 3s2 3p2
minimum oxidation number: -4 maximum oxidation number: 4
min. common oxidation no.: -4 max. common oxidation no.: 4

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: diamond color: gray-black
uses: comp chip,lubricant,glass toxicity:
hardness: 7 mohs characteristics: semimetal


reaction with air: mild, =>SiO2
reaction with 6M HCl: none reaction with 6M HCl: none
reaction with 15M HNO3: none reaction with 6M NaOH: mild, =>silicates

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 3 hydride(s): SiH4 Si2H6 + more
oxide(s): SiO2 chloride(s): SiCl4 Si2Cl6 + more


ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 117.6 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): pm ionic radius (3+ ion): pm


thermal conductivity: 149 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 0.012 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 5.4 A^3


source: Quartz (oxide)
rel. abund. solar system: 6.000 log abundance earth's crust: 5.5 log
cost, pure: 5.4 $/100g cost, bulk: 0.14 $/100g

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